|Speaker (Affiliation) |
|Presentation Title and Abstract |
| Session We-1: More than Moore, Bridge to... |
|Salvo Coffa (ST Microelectronics) || |
|Tetsuya Asai (Hokkaido Univ.) ||More-than-Moore, Bridges to Neuromorphic Computing |
Abstract: This talk gives an overview of "neuromorphic" computing systems in terms of More-than-Moore concepts (existing CMOS + emerging research devices). I will focus on two hot topics in this research field: i) non-volatile analog synaptic devices, and ii) positive use of noise and fluctuations. For i), I will introduce a possible synaptic device that connects neural elements electrically through nonvolatile resistor. The device consists of a bipolar ReRAM, a capacitor, and two nMOS FETs. The synaptic conductance is updated in accordance with spike timing differences between pre- and post neuronal devices, which mimics a biological process called spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) in the brain. For ii), noise and fluctuations are usually considered as “obstacles” in the operation of both analog and digital circuit systems, and most strategies to deal with them are focused on the suppression. I will give an overview of neural systems that employ different strategies, i.e., neural strategies that can “exploit” the properties of noise to improve the efficiency of operations, to explore possible opportunities for emerging research devices.
|Jim Weiland (Univ. Southern California) ||Nanotechnology applied to artificial vision |
Abstract: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macula degeneration (AMD) lead to the degeneration of the light sensitive cells of the eye (photoreceptors), resulting in a significant visual deficit for the afflicted individual. In a retina affected by RP or AMD, the photoreceptors are absent, but other cells of the retina remain present in large numbers. Current clinical trials are investigating the feasibility an electronic device that will electrically stimulate the remaining cells of the retina to generate visual perceptions. In tests with human volunteers with little or no light perception, we have used a prototype retinal prosthesis to create the perception of discrete spots of light. Some subjects can read letters. The current focus is being shifted to the development of a high-resolution retinal prosthesis which will be capable of stimulating the retina at thousands of individual points. Simulations of prosthetic vision predict that 1000 electrodes will be needed to restore visual function such as face recognition and reading. Nanotechnology will be critical to achieving this goal and several nanoscale approaches are under development that will addresses key technology gaps. In addition, discrete, autonomous photosensitive nanoswitches can potentially restore near normal vision by targeting individual cells.
| Session We-2: More than Moore, Bridge to... |
|Chairs, Toyohiro Chikyo (Japan), James Hutchby (US) |
|Roel Baets (U.Gent) ||Silicon Nanophotonics in Europe: Research and Technology Platforms |
Silicon photonics is emerging as a key generic technology for a broad
range of applications. It uses the technology base of advanced CMOS to
build complex and highly dense photonic circuits either in combination
with electronic circuitry or for stand-alone photonic IC’s. While the
smallest dimensions in photonic components are relatively large as
compared to their electronic counterparts – of the order of a few 100
nm, the accuracy of these dimensions needs to be very precise – of the
order of a few nm. Therefore there is a good match between the
technological needs of photonic ICs and the capabilities of advanced
Silicon photonics is finding its way
into the marketplace today. Early products include active optical
cables with 40 and 100 Gb/s data capacity and specific products for the
fiber-optic telecom market. But the prospects go far beyond that. In
the next 5 to 10 years silicon photonics may provide a viable road
towards solving the challenges associated with interconnect in
multi-core processor systems. It may also be of key importance to
reduce the power consumption in data centers. And it may be at the very
heart of smart sensing functionality in lab-on-chip systems, in
biomedical point-of-care systems and even in commodity systems.
One of the challenges is to build the supply chain for this new field.
There is a need for a foundry-like approach all the way from R&D up
to industrial high volume manufacturing. The initiatives in Europe that
pave the way for foundry-based silicon nanophotonics will be discussed.
|H. Fujita (Univ. Tokyo) ||MEMS-based Heterogeneous systems Integration |
Abstract: With the saturation in the miniaturization of microelectronics as well as the maturity of MEMS, now further advance in micro electronics is pursued by More-than-Moore approach. Here, a heterogeneous integration technology combining various fabrication methods is proposed for achieving the breakthrough. We can utilize micromachining, VLSI technology, compound semiconductor technology, nano technology, bio technology, organic/inorganic chemistry, printing and molding to create a versatile manufacturing technology over the scale and material variety. This talk deals with the concept towards the heterogeneous integration of devices and functionality into micro/nano systems and the examples of current development.
|Toshihiro Kamei (AIST) ||Towards fully integrated laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection devices for point-of-care microfluidic biochemical analysis |
Abstract: Miniaturization and integration of laser-induced fluorescence detection system is prerequisite to exploit potential point-of-care benefits of microfluidics. Most of integrated fluorescence detectors, however, suffer from high limit of detection (LOD) compared to conventional optical system that consists of discrete optical components, which is mainly due to higher laser light scattering of integrated optics rather than detector sensitivity. We have reduced background (BG) photocurrent of an integrated hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) fluorescence detector due to laser light scattering, significantly improving a LOD and demonstrating capability of detecting single molecular DNA when combined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Now we are working towards integration of blue-green InGaN laser diode (LD)/LED and micro-optical system to construct fully integrated LIF devices under a FIRST program "microsystem integration" (Leader: Prof. Esashi). Although advantages using a-Si:H include monolithic integration on heterogeneous materials, we are pursuing for alternative approach based on surface activated bonding. The integrated a-Si:H-InGaN based detection-excitation device will be capable of high sensitivity detection of visible fluorescence emitted from practical labeling dye, making it ideal for application to point-of-care microfluidic biochemical analysis.
|Axel Scherer (Cal Tech) ||Silicon Integration from the Microscale to the Nanoscale |
Abstract: Silicon has emerged as an attractive material for many applications beyond its original use in microelectronic circuits. For example, silicon photonics has emerged as a platform to integrate optical data communications onto compact microchips, and MEMS has evolved to meet many needs in mechanical and fluidic applications. Here we describe the evolution of increasingly complex integrated micro-devices in which we combine the electronic, optical, thermal and mechanical properties of silicon. We will describe how the optical and mechanical behavior of silicon structures can change in profound ways when these are reduced to nanoscale dimensions. Great opportunities as well as challenges emerge when device geometries are reduced to below 5nm, where remarkable changes in the mechanical and optical performance can be observed. We are heading towards a regime where the properties of silicon can be controlled by geometry rather than chemistry.
Session We-3: Societal Challenges |
|Chairs, Gilbert Declerck (Europe), Kos Galatsis (US) |
|Heinz Gerhäuser (FhG/IIS) ||Technologies for the Ageing Society |
Abstract: The aging society and the resulting demographical changes present one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. To successfully cope with these emerging problems requires immediate action e.g. the development of assistance systems. Technical assistance systems will help elderly people to remain active at home, on the road, as well as in communication with their environment. Since technology-based innovations can only be successful if they actually reach people, an interdisciplinary approach is followed to support engineering and science chairs and bodies with concept development and evaluation.
The presentation reports on research topics of Fraunhofer. Particular work conducted at several Fraunhofer Institutes focus on topics like “mobility” and “smart home”. Both topics are essential for living longer an autonomous and self-determined life.
Key issues for most developments are battery powered lowpower integrated circuits, wireless short range communication circuits and ease of use. Our aging society requires affordable products and services.
|Kenji Hata (AIST) ||Challenges and Future for Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes |
Abstract: Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) forests represent an important field in nanotube research. Water-assisted CVD now known as the “super-growth” technique stands as one representative method to grow SWNT forests in a short time.
Here, I will present the current status to realize economical and industrial scale mass productions, and to develop new applications. I would introduce the first pilot plant of SWNT forest (spec. 100g/hour ) that can continuously grow SWNT forests on 50 cm square substrates fed to a furnace [ref patent] by a belt-conveyer.
The SWNTs within the forests possess exceptional properties of high purity, high surface area, long length, and alignment. These properties has opened up new opportunities for CNTs, exemplified by CNT black body absorbers , CNT-MEMS , stretchable conductors , high power and density super-capacitors , biofuel cells ,temperature invariant viscoelastic CNT materials , and strain sensors  for human motion detection.
With the launch of the pilot plant of SWNT forest, some of these applications are expected to be realized in real commercial products soon. My perspectives regarding industrialization of SWNTs forests would be presented.
References:  Science 2004, 306, 1362, PNAS, 106 (15), 6044-6047 (2009),  Nature Nanotechnology 3.289 (2008),  Science, 321, 1468(2008), Nature Materials, 8 (6), 494-499 (2009),  Advanced Materials 22, E235 (2010), JACS 132, 18017-18019 (2010), JACS 133, 5129–5134 (2011),  Science, 330 (6009), 1364-1368 (2010),  Nature Nanotechnology DOI: 10.1038/NNANO.2011.36
|Christina Luscombe, (Univ. Washington) ||Nanotechnology for Solar Energy Collection and Conversion |
Abstract: Due to increased environmental concerns and our ever-growing energy demands, there is a great need to develop renewable sources of energy. Solar energy in particular is a promising energy source because it is readily available, free from geopolitical tensions, and not a threat to the environment through pollution. Solar energy could facility the US to become energy independent, but it could also provide economic opportunities if the US can maintain leadership in this field of research. Unfortunately, there still are many obstacles that need to be overcome for solar technology to be used to meet our future energy needs. Namely, the cost of existing devices is not competitive against current sources of energy which include fossil fuels. For solar energy to become economically viable, substantial scientific breakthroughs need to be made. Nanotechnology could be an enabling technology which will help this happen. The use of nanoscale structures (both in terms of morphology and particles) will be discussed as they pertain to building devices for energy storage as well as collection.
Session We-4: Nano-Materials Safety - To promote international collaboration |
|Chairs, Masahiro Takemura(Japan) and Dave Seiler(US) |
|Gaku Ichihara (Nagoya Univ.) ||EHS Researches on Manufactured Nanomaterials in Japan |
Abstract: Recent activities of Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) researches on manufactured nanomaterials in Japan will be introduced. National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology and University of Occupational and Environmental Health conducted 28 day-inhalation studies using rats for nickel oxide, fullerene, multi-walled carbonnanotubes (MWCNT) and single-walled carbonnanotubes, as well as intra-tracheal instillation studies on selected nanomaterials. They are reporting risk assessment of titanium dioxide, fullerene, MWCNT based on their own experiments as well as reviewing other publications. National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) is conducting long-term studies to investigate carcinogenicity, systemic effects and effect of the shapes of selected nanomaterials. They are also conducting animal studies by dermal exposure and inhalation exposure as well as developing Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion methodology. National Institute for Materials Science is investigating biological influences of manufactured nanomaterials in vitro and participating in a round robin study of International Nano-EHS Harmonization in collaboration with experts in EU and USA. Nagoya University is conducting exposure assessment and epidemiological studies in factories handling titanium dioxide. The current situation of the above projects will be shown and finally which types of researches are further needed will be discussed.
|Kalman Migler (NIST) ||Nanomaterial Environmental, Health and Safety (Nano-EHS) An integrated program from measurement science through documentary standards to reference materials |
Abstract: Nanomaterials hold amazing promise. However, the benefits of nanomaterials may never be realized due to public fears of potential hazards to human health and the environment and reluctance of US industry to invest in potentially harmful technologies. The problem is that nanomaterials and products that incorporate nanomaterials pose unknown risks throughout the stages of their life cycles to people and the environment. Science-based lifecycle risk assessment and risk management is required to address this problem. This requires the development of a measurement and standards infrastructure to establish the essential linkages between physico-chemical properties, exposure, and hazards. The NIST program will enable industry to innovate, remain competitive, ensure worker safety, and comply with regulations and the public to establish trust in nanotechnology and reap the benefits of nanomaterials for health and the economy.
NIST’s role in addressing the problem is to establish the essential measurement science and to develop and disseminate critical measurement technology for determining physico-chemical and toxicological properties of nanomaterials and products that incorporate nanomaterials, and assessing potential release of nanomaterials, throughout all stages of their life cycles—from nanomaterial manufacture through product fabrication, distribution, storage, use, recycling, and disposal. NIST is the lead federal agency for physico-chemical property measurements and standards, and has essential world-class expertise and state-of-the-art facilities.
Session We-5: Report from IPWGN |
|Chair, James Hutchby (US) |
|Toshiro Hiramoto (Univ. Tokyo) ||Report from IPWGN |
Abstract: International Planning Working Group for Nanoelectronics (IPWGN) is a task force WG in INC. The mission of IPWGN is to identify areas where collaboration and cooperation between regional nanoelectronics programs can expedite the development of applicable technologies. In this presentation, regional research vectors, publicly funded regional programs, potential research gaps, and areas where collaboration and cooperation between regions will accelerate programs will be reported.
Poster Session Poster preview |
|Chair, K. Wang (US) |
|18:20-18:30 Joachim Pelka (FhG/VμE), Europe |
|18:00-18:10 Noburu Fukushima (Toshiba), Japan |
|18:10-18:20 George Bourianoff (Intel), US |